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How to use the beginning of Winter Rape

Publisher:Time:2015-11-09 18:29:05Views:

In November 7th to enter the winter solar term means the beginning of winter, winter. The northern cold air has a strong influence, sometimes accompanied by a cool wind rain and snow cold weather. From the average of years, November is the most cold month. The crop may suffer chilling and freeze. After winter in most areas of Chinese, precipitation decreased significantly, the air is dry, soil water loss more. So for the winter wheat and winter rapeseed planting area, soil moisture and drought is very important. The soil moisture condition has a very close relationship with the growth of crops and the winter. Jiangxi farmer's proverb cloud: "the beginning of winter snow rape, wheat, and farmer's proverb says" made a winter, the cultivated land, soil nutrient and growth, "said.

Rape is the only China winter oilseed crops, is a land of good. It developed and secreted a large amount of organic acid, which can be used to decompose the insoluble phosphorus in the soil. China is winter rapeseed producing country, widely distributed in the provinces and the Yangtze River Basin of Yunnan Guizhou Plateau Chinese. Scientific fertilization is an important part of high yield, high quality and high efficiency of winter rape. Rape is a crop that need to be more fertilizer, the requirement of N, P and K is more than that of rice, especially for phosphorus and boron. Every 100 kilograms of rapeseed production need to absorb nitrogen from 8 to 11 kg, 5 kg, 3 P ~ k 8.5 ~ 12.8 kg. When nitrogen is short, the plant is short, and the yield is lower. However, when the supply of nitrogen is too large, it will cause the protein in the grain to increase, and the oil content is decreased, so it is reasonable to use nitrogen fertilizer. Only balanced fertilization to ensure rapeseed yield and oil content to remain at a high level, and partial nitrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium caused by imbalance will significantly reduce the rate of rapeseed oil. Production from the current situation, the rational application of phosphorus, potassium and boron can improve the rapeseed oil rate and improve the oil in the fatty acid properties.
On the balance and proportion of rape. Under the premise of making full use of organic fertilizer, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer was mainly controlled by the level of soil fertility and yield of the target, which was controlled by the amount of nitrogen fertilizer. To rapeseed in Hubei Province nutrient management recommendations, for example, the recommended amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are as follows: yield level of 200 kg / mu more than recommended nitrogen fertilizer (pure N) 11 to 13 kg / mu, phosphorus (P2O5) 4 ~ 6 kg / mu, potash (pure K2O) 7 ~ 9 kg / mu, borax 1.0 kg / mu; yield level of 100 to 200 kg / mu, nitrogen (n) 8 ~ 10 kg / mu, phosphorus (P2O5) 3 ~ 5 kg / mu, potash (K2O) 5 ~ 7 kg / mu, borax 0.75 kg / mu and so on.
In the fertilization period, the use of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer could increase the utilization rate due to the long rape growth period. Therefore appropriate to increase the number of fertilization, in addition to the basal, even after fat, bolting fertilizer and fertilizers application; for live and seeds in winter to increase a fertilizer. Nitrogen, potassium split application should be appropriate to reduce the amount of fertilizer, increase the proportion of growth period in. Specific fertilization period: in transplanted rape: 60% of nitrogen, the total amount of potash for fertilizer, 20% conducted (50 days after transplanting), 20% for 80 days after bolting fertilizer (transplanting). For direct seeding rape: 40% of the total nitrogen fertilizer, 30% provided miaofei (after sowing 25 ~ 30 days), 15% for conducted (about 80 days after sowing), 15% for bolting fertilizer sowing (after 110 days or so); 60% of the total amount of potash fertilizer, about 30% were conducted (after sowing 80 days left (right), 10% for bolting fertilizer sowing (110 days) and the rest of the fertilizer as base fertilizer.
At present there is an important problem in production, to promote the deep application of fertilizer, the root growth of rape. To live the rape as an example, it has obvious taproot, lateral root along the root distribution in the soil layers, and the root is not developed. If fertilizers are only applied to the soil surface that will guide rape root (including the root) just longer than the surface soil and deep tie, Mafu root formation, leading to rape roots instability, decreased absorption capacity of water and fertility of soil, and prone to down seedlings and fertilizer, drought hit off phenomenon. And during the growth of winter rape often encounter all kinds of natural disasters or harsh conditions of stress, such as at the beginning of 2008 frozen snow disaster, at the beginning of the year 2009 drought, as well as the annual rape flowering of rain and wind and other unfavorable factors, and the mature period may encounter weather of overcast and rainy, the rape production in the country are limiting factors.
In short, balanced fertilization is beneficial to the safe, high yield and quality of winter rape.

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